Final Course Reflection – INTE5340 and Plant-based diet Journey

Made it through the end of this course journey. It has been a long summer to say the least. The majority of the time I felt lost, frustrated, overwhelmed and unsure of myself, but it was a great experience overall. I can’t say that I absolutely got everything out of this course that I should have, but I can say that  I learned a great deal. I have participated in an online community of such creative and interesting people. DS106 is a great way to belong to a learning community and challenge ones-self and to have fun while being creative. Assignments are posted for anyone to complete and it is entirely up to you as to what assignments you choose to do. Open-source learning, sharing, supporting, and creating, what a great idea. I have tried different software products that I was interested in using, but never thought I would have a reason to do so. I started this blog, sharing my thoughts with the world not only on this course but also on how I feel about going vegan. More on that particular journey in a bit. This ever growing digital age has so much more to offer than I had ever thought. This digital-story class showed me that.  I didn’t learn because I was lectured at, I learned because I did. I experienced digital story-telling and started telling MY STORY.

As I have thought about this vegan journey and how I am presenting it to the world, both online and in person, I think I am going to refer toward my chosen diet as plant-based. I still have my passion for eating a vegan diet (plant-based diet), but there are some aspects of a true ‘vegan’ lifestyle that I’m not completely on board with. I am still very passionate about the treatment of animals, but I am also still very open-minded in that I KNOW, yes KNOW, that animals will continue to be eaten. I will continue to eat at establishments that also serve animal products, as I can almost always find something on the menu I can modify to eat, because that is the world we live in. Though my sister (also a newly plant-based diet eater) and I found out that some restaurants have animal products in practically every item on their menus. French fries that contain dairy?  Batter dipped fries do. I have found a few places that serve completely vegan meals and I enjoy going to them, but there are very few in this world of convenience. I will admit that I like being able to grab something to eat that I don’t have to cook, nor clean up after. I have been eating more at home since choosing to eat plant-based, healthier and I can know exactly what I put into my dishes, but sometimes you just want to enjoy the food and leave the mess to someone else.  I’m also still at the point where, I will eat say fries, that have been cooked in the same oil as chicken. As I continue on with this particular journey, that may and probably will change but for now I’m okay with it. I have not eaten any animal flesh since the beginning of May, which for a once hard-core meat-eater, this is almost astonishing. Unfortunately I have, usually after having already eaten something, I am made aware that I consumed dairy but once I know dairy is in something I won’t make the mistake of eating it again. This is not a choice to make lightly, it does require research, asking questions, reading labels, understanding ingredients and patience. I may fail, I have failed, but I won’t let a few occasions throw me off course. The small amount of Parmesan or whatever I have accidentally eaten, comes nowhere close to the amount I used to purposefully eat so this makes me happy. Not to mention, three months in and I have lost over 35lbs. Not really changing my exercise routines, just by changing the things I was choosing to eat. I’m kind of excited to have my annual blood work drawn, I know by the way I am feeling that my previous numbers are going to be put to shame.

I will address the following three topics for this final reflection as well:

  • Reflections of me as a learner in this course:
    This course was not structured like most of my previous graduate courses. This course introduced me to the world of digital story-telling and why it is important to us as a people. This course allowed me to learn and fail, as I explored the digital telling world with fresh eyes and an open mind. I embraced the ds106 community and enjoyed, well for the most part, the challenges the assignments provided. We each have a story to tell and this course helped me realize that. My minimal social learning practices included occasional visits to and posts on Facebook, online dating site user, some social media site account owner, though never used and a few other sites that are work related. I had such a small online footprint that, I’m not even sure it really was one. What I’m trying to say is that by participating in this course and choosing to learn from my experiences, I have started to build my online presence and share my story. As I continue on with my graduate program journey, I think I will always come back to this course and think about how I can learn by doing. As having finished half of the required courses, I know that there is a lot of ‘doing’ within this program, but I will remember to have fun as I am doing, so that I will learn. This was something that I came across on one of my fellow classmates assignment posts, fun doesn’t happen during learning, its that we learn buy having fun. I absolutely love this and think it is true. When we are doing something that interests us, enjoying it because we want to be doing it, we learn the most and what we learn will stick with us.  “Have fun and you will learn”
  • My co-design of this course:
    The course was different in that though guidance and some structure were provided, the bulk of my experience in this course was determined by me. I chose my focal them, I chose the assignments I completed in ds106, I chose the articles/digital stories to critique. Learning occurred on my own, but also as I actively participate in this course. We provided each other with areas of interest and shared our reasons for why we were sharing them. As our course went on, we had a collection of information and ideas to respond to and to experience. Some interested me more than others and that was perfectly acceptable. I may have even found an interest in something that had I not taken this course, I probably never would have known it interested me. I feel like having a personal link to things helped rally classmates support. We were people not just another student taking the course. We connected through our focal themes and comments. If I were to design this course, I probably wouldn’t change anything. Having assignments be interest and choice driven gives the student the connection to that assignment. They have a say in the why and the how it was completed, which added the element of fun. There were still assignments that had to be completed, so still very much a course but a course that was driven in 20 different ways.
  • My understanding of pedagogy:  I understand Remi’s course design to be one in which the students develop the course content, to some extent, and then learn from one another. His method of teaching is somewhat of a sink or swim kind of idea, though with his guidance and encouraged support from fellow classmates, the end result is that the class all swim by the end. Some, like me may be using floaties, but I’m still above water. Remi provided the requirement of a great textbook that truly fits with this course. This for me was a very good decision on his part. Though it was a lot to read and learn in the 8 weeks we had for this summer course, the L&K textbook helped guide us students with our critique selections and understanding of the overall concept of digital storytelling. As a person that works in higher education I understand the conventional need for structure and determined curriculum in courses, but after having completed this course with an unconventional pedagogy I think there needs to be more courses like this. If fun drives learning then students need to be able to explore to find those things that are fun for them. Structure a course with the parameters that need to be met, but if we want students to truly learn and to be excited about learning give them some control on how they do it. At one time in my life, I considered an instructor to be the person at the head of a classroom. Very simple. However as I have moved forward in my career, I have changed my definition on what I deem as an instructor. Can an instructor be at the head/front of a class? ABSOLUTELY! Does the instructor have to be there? Nope. My evolved definition of an instructor is someone or something that promotes learning. So this course hasn’t changed my understanding of “instructor”, it helped to solidify that my definition is more correct than I previously thought. The only bit of feedback that I can think to give would be to maybe define the assignments a bit more. I think as a collective group, we were unsure as to what types of stories we were to critique and what made something a selected scholarship.
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Response to L&K – Week 7, Chapter 8: Social learning and new literacies in formal education

new Literacies

New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel, is divided into 3 parts;

  • Part 1: New Literacies: Concepts and Theory
  • Part 2: New Literacies: Some Everyday Practices
  • Part 3: New Literacies and Social Learning

Below is my response to Chapter 8, which falls under Part 3.

This is my response to the final chapter in Lankshear and Knobel’s New literacies book. As I was reading the final chapter, I was reflecting on my journey through this semester and this course. The chapter goes on to discuss two cases of social learning and new literacies within formal education programs. Throughout reading these I couldn’t help but to compare these cases with my own social learning and new literacies in my formal master’s program offered through the University of Colorado Denver.  This program I have selected to pursue is everything this chapter sums up. My master program is offered as a completely online program. I connect online with my instructor and classmates from the comfort of my home or office. For this reason I still have a hard time truly seeing the ‘social’ part of the learning as I have yet to meet face to face with any of the other students within my program. Oh wait, I have met face to face with one fellow student, but only because he and I worked at the same university, campus and in departments that worked closely together, but otherwise I would not have had face to face interactions with anyone in this program.

So having pointed this out, why do I still feel that this is social learning? Well because we are collectively learning the same material and supporting each other along the way. The act of being social no longer solely applies to being in the same geographic location and physical space. Having read through this New Literacies book by Lanshear and Knobel, I now have a much better understanding of this. As the world of learning and teaching evolves, so does the definitions of how those are accomplished. Simply learning things online doesn’t make it social, its the interactions in whatever form they come that do. Tweeting a message out to the world and having it become seen by others, commented on by others, liked by others, re-tweeted by others is what makes it social.

Higher education curriculum’s are seeing the value in offering programs that are different from the previous standard of teaching. Otherwise, this course wouldn’t exist nor would I as the student be sitting here typing my response to this chapter. Not only is higher education starting to adopt these new literacies within the programs they offer, but so are earlier levels. It’s becoming obvious that in order to meet the needs of these younger students and to prepare them for the world they will soon be apart of, they too must moved to curriculum’s that will give these students the skills and knowledge to succeed. As presented in this chapter, one case uses ‘gamelike learning’ to connect the demands of the world and the 21st century with how these students learn.

As the world changes, so must how we teach. This final chapter sums this up and the rest of the book took me through the journey of seeing this. I have been frustrated and confused practically this entire semester, because I didn’t understand social learning, new literacies and how they are being used to better prepare today’s learners for the world of tomorrow. I’m not saying this chapter suddenly brought this all into focus, because trust me I’m still learning, but summing up the book it has made me understand why we as a class participated as members of the ds106 community and why the different assignments were asked of us. In order to understand the importance of digital storytelling we must first understand the need and how these digital stories will be used.

Response to L&K – Week 6, Chapter 7: Social learning, ‘push’ and ‘pull’ and building platforms for collaborative learning

new Literacies

New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel, is divided into 3 parts;

  • Part 1: New Literacies: Concepts and Theory
  • Part 2: New Literacies: Some Everyday Practices
  • Part 3: New Literacies and Social Learning

Below is my response to Chapter 7, which falls under Part 3.

My response to this chapter will focus on social learning, multiple learning modes, and access to people. Lankshear and Knobel reference ‘Minds on fire: Open education, the long tail and learning 2.0’ by Brown and Adler (2008,17). They recognize that In order for populations in the near future to be successful and to thrive, they will need to build ‘robust local eco-systems of resources’. They will become more and more dependent on these productive and innovative ways of supporting their ongoing learning and creative activity. It will be crucial that they produce these new resources out of what already exists to preserve scarce resources.

The previous models of buildings on campuses and pre-set curriculum’s of higher education, will no longer be enough to meet the learning needs and demands of the coming populations. There is tension between learning demands and resources available that will only become greater as time goes on. Though I truly believe the current model of will not completely disappear, it will certainly need to evolve to incorporate the changing needs and demands that have already started to appear. The conventional higher education models are already proving to be lacking in terms of innovation and productiveness and in order to change this, new ideas and approaches need to be developed.

Diverse and alternative ways of learning are needed to ensure the next populations grow and thrive. Current generations want and need more than these previous traditional ways are able to give them and so they seek out information on their own. The availability of accessing information has altered the demand and has guided these generations to take their learning into their own hands. The things they are learning are still the same ideas, approaches, methods, policies, practices etc. from traditional learning models, they are just learning about these in new ways. They are then able to think of new sustainable ways or creative ways to expand on what they are learning, who they are learning with and how they could do things better. Previous and current lesson plan structures confined the learning to a specific topic, idea, etc., but as curriculum has started to open up, learners can explore an idea or topic outside of what was previously/currently taught.  As learning can happen anywhere, at any time, or with anyone the sole need to have physical locations to provide and teach the information is not what it use to be. Physical institutional spaces existed to bring people together to foster ideas and learning in the past but as we are no longer bound to walls and set lesson plans to collaborate and develop ideas and solutions, we as a people can  let go of that limitation and see what the minds of the future can give us.

Response to L&K – Week5, Chapter 6: Everyday practices of online social networking

new Literacies

New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel, is divided into 3 parts;

  • Part 1: New Literacies: Concepts and Theory
  • Part 2: New Literacies: Some Everyday Practices
  • Part 3: New Literacies and Social Learning

Below is my response to Chapter 6, which falls under Part 2.

This week we were given the choice to respond to either chapter 5: Blog and wikis or Chapter 6: Everyday practices of online social networking. I obviously chose chapter 6. Just wanted to clarify why you are not seeing week 5, chapter 5.

Prior to this semester and this course, my online footprint was rather small. Social media sites confused me and with my limited understanding I stayed away from the majority of sites to keep from looking like a complete dummy. I originally joined myspace to stay connected with my group of friends from college. These people knew me and it didn’t matter if I failed at using the site, because they all had probably seen me do far worse. Again, they were COLLEGE friends, doing stupid things together was practically a must. So, when myspace transitioned out and facebook came to the forefront we all switched over. I was comfortable using the site, it met my needs and my little social world was happy. Then I go an decide I want to pursue a master’s and due to the content of this degree my safe little social world had to grow. I had to leave the safety of the people that knew me and venture out into a vast, terrifying, confusing, overwhelming world and not only manage to stay afloat but also not be seen as the dummy I was so afraid of becoming. Well the verdict is still out on whether or not I’m looking stupid in my posts, but I’ve opened the doors and I have left the confinement of my safe little space and I’m exploring this big bad world. This is why I chose to respond to this chapter. Everyday practices of online social networking vary from person to person and also vary based on a specific point in time in a specific persons life. My everyday practices 5 years ago differ a great deal from them today.

This chapter break downs the differences between groups, networks, ‘networked individualism’ and social networking services in everyday life. ‘Groups’ usually are defined as a closely connected people that have many face-to-face interactions with each other and the majority of the people within the group all know each other. A group of people would normally be located in close proximity to the other members of the group. ‘Networks’ are similar but are no longer confined by proximity or time. The members of a network do not necessarily know each other but are still connected in some way. ‘Networked Individualism’ is where a person is involved within a network, but has no real ties to the other members in those networks, nor is proximity or time really a factor. People only get out, what they give in as a network individualism member. There is no support from the other members, the person must actively network to be successful within the network. ‘Online social networking services’ are spaces that are profile driven. To be a member of the service, a person must complete the necessary questionnaire or whatever, sharing information about themselves so other members within the service can learn about the person. A person could be a member of any number of these and their everyday practices within each that they are a member of, will probably vary between them. Just depends on the person and their needs and wants.

As a now active, ok barely active, member of twitter, I feel that I am a member in the Network individualism network. I have to actively follow specific people/groups that interest me in order to get information that is relevant to my interests. As my focal theme for this course is my vegan journey, I have come across many vegan/plant based diet pages, groups, and people. Others within this course have also shared articles and pages with me that have also helped guide this journey. The information, recipes, articles, etc. are now available to me as I have connected with them, but I still need to be active in reading them, commenting on them, liking them, etc. to truly be a member of the conversations. I’m trying, but it really is a lot of work to stay connected and informed.

One question asked of the readers for discussion is: Are dating sites social networking services? On what reasons do you base your decision?

My response is that yes, I feel like dating sites are social networking services. People join them to meet people. To me this is a social service. Members create a profile introducing themselves to the members they are trying to meet, presenting tidbits of themselves hoping to attract someone that has similar interests, goals, desires, etc. I guess a bar on a Friday night could also be a social networking service of sorts, minus the transparent upfront profile but still a means to connect one person with another. The act of being together in a common place/space is practically the definition of social activities, so regardless of the source dating sites, facebook, linkedin, they still belong to a social networking service. People join them to connect in some way with other members of that service.

Response to L&K – Week4, Chapter 4: New literacies and social practices of digital remixing

new Literacies

New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel, is divided into 3 parts;

  • Part 1: New Literacies: Concepts and Theory
  • Part 2: New Literacies: Some Everyday Practices
  • Part 3: New Literacies and Social Learning

Below is my response to Chapter 4, which falls under Part 2.

There is a ton of information in this chapter, but I am going to focus my response on music remixing and creating serviceware mashups.

As I began reading this chapter, my mind kept going to different remix songs that came out as I was growing up. Music is what I instantly thought of when I read the title of this chapter “. . . digital remixing” but as I was reading I realized music is just a small, small piece of today’s technology that can be remixed/mashed up.  As I was typing that last sentence, I started thinking about a movie that came out a few years back with the sequel earlier this year, Pitch Perfect. The movie follows a capella groups as they compete for a national title, sequel is a different title but you get the idea. As these groups prepare for their performances during these competitions, they would mashup different songs that fit together to create a new song/sound. The lead character also remixes music as a hobby/career, which then leads to her help her group to mashup new, current, music/songs to become successful in winning these titles. Sorry, if I just ruined the endings of these movies for you, but to be honest they are kind of predictable.

Creating serviceware mashups is basically creating new online interface serviceware application out of existing services that didn’t previously meet the needs of the users. Mashing up applications gives users the ability to meet specific purposes adding value to the tools. Some examples of these types of application programming interfaces (APIs) include Panoramio.com, Twittervision.com, and Wikipediavision. (page 107)

A valued mashup combines the best of both worlds of these applications. With Panoramio.com a user can find images of a certain place or explore an area where a specific picture was taken or Twittervision.com allows a user to micro blog like with twitter and pinpoint, in real time, where those ‘tweets’ were made.

In the current online world creating mashup serviceware is easily done and could even take a matter of minutes. Non-technical users can use an online tool such as programmableweb.com to enter into the world of application mashups. the service provides how to guides and can connect the user to other sites for information. Users can use these types and information to combine other tools to meet there specific needs. As I’m thinking about this, I can easily imagine that the possibilities are truly endless for the new types of servicewares that can be created. One users needs most likely are different from another users, the demand for new servicewares is ever changing.

Combining multiple things to create a new thing, is not a new concept. Practically all of my life I can think of things that were combined, mashed up, to create something different, but with the resources and information available to practically anyone these days, remixes and mashups can and will be so much more than I could ever imagine. I look forward to see what comes out in the years to come.

Response to L&K – Week3, Chapter 3: “New” Literacies: Technologies and Values

new Literacies

New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel, is divided into 3 parts;

  • Part 1: New Literacies: Concepts and Theory
  • Part 2: New Literacies: Some Everyday Practices
  • Part 3: New Literacies and Social Learning

Below is my response to Chapter 3, which falls under Part 1.

This chapter presented a lot of information on the ever changing and evolution of new literacies. At the beginning of the chapter L&K compared the life-span of a new literacy to the life-span of a car.  As I was starting to read this chapter, I realized  that this was how I thought the life-span of a new literacy was. L&K moved away from this comparison to get the reader to better understand how new literacies change over time by introducing a better way of thinking about how outside forces are the driving forces for the changes in new literacies.

As the needs and demands for a way to create, share, use, and utilize a new literacy change and evolve, so does the new literacy.  The community that consumes and uses a literacy dictates how that literacy will change over time. If the literacy doesn’t meet the needs of the community that uses it either an additional new literacy will come to be or the one that failed to meet the needs will evolve in a way that will meet the needs.  If a new literacy was all encompassing and always met every need, our world would become stagnant, eventually boring, in my opinion.

New literacies promote creative ideas and different ways of thinking. Communities that use them are engaged with each other and as ideas are shared new ones come up and the evolution of that literacy takes shape. This is fascinating to me. Simply having a new literacy is not enough, people want bigger and better, which ultimately changes the new literacies of today to become the new literacies of tomorrow. I love that a lot of this change and creativity happen on its own, because of public consumption and demand.  Using these literacies is not usually something that is taught, its a learned skill. Once someone has invested their time in learning it, they are engaged with it. When someone is engaged, creativity and sharing happens and the cycle continues on.

Basic literacies of reading and writing really couldn’t evolve, but having them had encouraged, supported, and allowed for the evolution of these new literacies.

No,  not all the users are directly involved with the evolution, in fact it’s probably a small percentage, but the creative minds of that small percentage develop amazing products that these communities embrace and use as to create, share, and to find meaning. The cycle then continues when the products need to evolve and change again.

Response to L&K – Week2, Chapter 2: Literacies: practice, Discourse, and encoded texts

new Literacies

New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel, is divided into 3 parts;

  • Part 1: New Literacies: Concepts and Theory
  • Part 2: New Literacies: Some Everyday Practices
  • Part 3: New Literacies and Social Learning

Below is my response to Chapter 2, which falls under Part 1.

This chapter gave me a better insight to ‘new’ literacies and how they are evolving and changing on a daily basis. 20 years ago the concept of social networks and social learning was just coming to be. The idea of involving oneself in multiple communities, outside of one’s physical demographic area, never crossed my mind. Today, the majority of the worlds population is part (even in a very small way) of communities of people and many don’t ever interact face to face. This course, social learning, sharing of information within a group of people is a great example of how literacies have changed and will continue to change. I participate in social media. It started with myspace, connecting with people I no longer lived near, to my participation in Facebook, now  twitter, blogs, flickr, etc. By participating in these networks I am learning the practice of being social outside of my physical space. Learning this ‘new’ literacy. I am able to make connections with people I would never have connected with outside of the internet community. People can belong to so many different communities and actively practice within them, it just boggles my mind.

After reading the chapter, I understand that the practices of literacies identify different ways of being in my life. These are classified as a Discourse, way of being. I have a Discourse of being a graduate student at the University of Colorado Denver. I have a Discourse of being an Assistant Registrar for Degree Audit. I have a Discourse of being a twin.  Within these Discourses, say my Discourse of being a twin, I have knowledge of what it’s like to be a twin, I have a discourse of sharing my life with someone I have known since before birth. I have a discourse in a bond/connection with another person at a different level than most.

So when I think about my participation in online social communities, I now have an understanding of how I can put meaning into these practices. How my participation identifies who I am as a student, as a professional, as a friend, as a sister, etc. My participation creates meaning, for me, in that community and encourages others to make meaning of what I share.

Reflection:
Something that was brought up in chapter 2, is the launch of Facebook in 2004 by Mark Zuckerburg and his collaborators. Was this launch, for all intents and purposes, a ‘new’ literacy being unleashed for public consumption?  I would argue that, yes it is a new literacy. This was a way to connect to people that didn’t exist before. People’s participation within the site has changed since the initial launch and overtime will change again, I’m sure. People may have completely online relationships with people they have never met and will probably will never met, at the same time is also a ‘friend’ with the person sitting next to them on the couch. Facebook removed the physical walls that really bound our existence with regards to our social lives and enabled people to experience friendships and connections all over.

Response to L&K – Week1, Chapter 1: From ‘reading’ to ‘new’ literacies

new Literacies

New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Social Learning by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel, is divided into 3 parts;

  • Part 1: New Literacies: Concepts and Theory
  • Part 2: New Literacies: Some Everyday Practices
  • Part 3: New Literacies and Social Learning

Below is my response to Chapter 1, which falls under Part 1.

In order for us to get to ‘new’ literacies, we need to first think about the basic definition of literacy. When a person initially thinks about literacy, we think of having the ability to read and write. In order to survive on a day to day basis, a person needs to have a minimum level of literacy. This chapter introduces literacy and how it came to be at the forefront of educational policy, practice and research by the 1980’s. Lankshear and Knobel discussed five reasons that have been linked to this change over time, to help the reader get a better picture of how literacy went from just having the ability to read and write to SO MUCH MORE.

Literacy is now very broad, no longer being as simple as being able to read and write. It has evolved to where anything that has educational value can be, in part, perceived as literacy. It can used as a metaphor for being functional in something, competent or proficient, such as ‘Computer Literate’. As technology advances, literacy will too continue to broaden.

Prior to reading this chapter, or even signing up for this course, I don’t think I consciously thought about literacy or digital storytelling. Sure I had a few accounts on social media networks, but I never really thought about how contributing to those accounts told my digital stories. I would say that I am not very ‘Social Network Literate’. Most of the sites confuse me and I have avoided them because I was intimidated, still am but I’m trying, by their vastness. After reading this chapter, how I would have defined ‘digital storytelling’ has definitely expanded. A digital story can be a simple post on Facebook or it can be a running blog. Digital images, cartoon, videos also tell stories. My previous definition was limited to text, to formal published articles. I didn’t realize that a persons online footprint no matter how small or large told their digital stories. Perhaps if I had participated more in social posting, my definition would have grown on its own, but having read this chapter and thinking about where literacy started and now where it is, I am able to see the educational aspects of participating in this world.

I’m now curious about how my online presence will grow. How I will use technology to learn and understand these ‘new literacies’ and watch them evolve again as social practices change. I am still intimidated by the thought of using animation, video, and audio to produce digital stories, mostly because I don’t have very much experience with using the different types of software tools, but I’m starting to become interested in the possibility of what I could create.

Having read this chapter and as I read through the rest of this book, I’m sure I will continue to gain a better understanding of ‘new literacies’ and how they are changing our world. This is just the first week of this course and already I have become to an extent Blogging, Twitter, and ds106 literate. Can’t wait for Chapter 2: Literacies: Practice, Discourse, and encoded texts.